Manufacturing KPIs & Metric 2023

Manufacturing KPIs & Metrics: Better Reporting in 2023

In today’s dynamic and hyper-competitive manufacturing landscape, businesses face mounting challenges to optimize their operations, reduce costs, and deliver high-quality products efficiently. To meet these demands, manufacturing companies turn to Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as invaluable tools for monitoring and evaluating their performance. Manufacturing KPIs offer actionable insights, enabling businesses to identify areas for improvement, make data-driven decisions, and ultimately achieve sustainable growth. In this comprehensive article, we will delve into a diverse range of unique Manufacturing KPIs and explore how each KPI contributes to streamlining processes, enhancing productivity, and attaining lasting success.

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

Overall Equipment Effectiveness

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a fundamental KPI that evaluates the performance of manufacturing equipment which is included in Manufacturing KPIs. It takes into account three critical factors:

a) Availability: The percentage of time the equipment is operational and available for production.

b) Performance: The rate at which the equipment operates compared to its maximum capability, often measured in terms of cycle time or speed.

c) Quality: The number of defect-free units produced by the equipment.

By calculating OEE, manufacturing companies can identify downtime, production bottlenecks, and areas for process optimization. This KPI empowers businesses to maximize the utilization of their equipment, reduce unplanned downtime, and enhance overall efficiency.

Metric Components:

  • Availability (%): (Total Runtime – Downtime) / Total Runtime
  • Performance (%): (Total Parts Produced / (Ideal Cycle Time * Total Runtime)) * 100
  • Quality (%): (Total Good Parts / Total Parts Produced) * 100

Read Also: Retail Inventory Management: Explanation and Best Practices

First Pass Yield (FPY)

First Pass Yield

First Pass Yield (FPY) is a crucial KPI that measures the percentage of products that pass quality control during the first attempt without requiring rework or adjustments. A high FPY indicates that the manufacturing process is well-established and consistent, reducing waste and resource consumption while increasing overall efficiency.

A low FPY, on the other hand, suggests that the production process may be prone to defects, leading to higher costs and delays. By closely monitoring FPY, manufacturers can identify areas where improvements are necessary to ensure better product quality and reduce unnecessary rework.

Metric: (Total Good Units Produced on the First Attempt / Total Units Started Production) * 100

Overall Labor Effectiveness (OLE)

Overall Labor Effectiveness

Overall Labor Effectiveness (OLE) is a KPI that evaluates the productivity of the workforce by considering factors such as employee availability, performance, and the quality of work produced. This KPI offers valuable insights into workforce management, including scheduling, training needs, and team efficiency.

By tracking OLE, manufacturing companies can identify periods of reduced productivity and address potential issues that may hinder optimal performance. Investing in employee training and empowerment can lead to a more skilled and efficient workforce, ultimately driving improved overall labor effectiveness.

Metric Components:

  • Availability (%): (Total Work Hours – Downtime) / Total Work Hours
  • Performance (%): (Total Units Produced / (Standard Output Rate * Total Work Hours)) * 100
  • Quality (%): (Total Good Units Produced / Total Units Produced) * 100

Supplier Quality Index (SQI)

Supplier Quality Index

The Supplier Quality Index (SQI) assesses the quality of materials or components provided by suppliers. Maintaining a high SQI is crucial for ensuring the consistent quality of the final product. A reliable supply chain with high-quality materials is essential for minimizing defects, enhancing product reliability, and improving customer satisfaction.

Regularly monitoring SQI allows manufacturers to identify underperforming suppliers and establish effective supplier management strategies. It empowers businesses to build strong partnerships with suppliers who meet high-quality standards and contribute to the success of the manufacturing process.

Metric: (Total Conforming Materials Received / Total Materials Received) * 100

Order-to-Delivery Cycle Time

Order-to-Delivery Cycle Time

The Order-to-Delivery Cycle Time KPI measures the time taken from receiving an order to delivering the finished product to the customer. Reducing this cycle time is critical for enhancing customer satisfaction, increasing responsiveness, and allowing for more frequent order fulfillment.

A shorter cycle time enables manufacturers to respond quickly to changing market demands and customer requirements. By streamlining the order-to-delivery process, manufacturers can gain a competitive edge and foster stronger customer relationships.

Metrics: End-to-End Time to Deliver an Order (from Order Placement to Customer Delivery)

Inventory Turnover Ratio

Inventory Turnover Ratio

The Inventory Turnover Ratio evaluates how efficiently a company manages its inventory by calculating the number of times inventory is sold or used during a specific period. A high turnover ratio indicates efficient inventory management, reducing carrying costs, and the risk of obsolete inventory.

Manufacturers with a healthy inventory turnover can maintain leaner operations, minimize storage costs, and optimize cash flow. This KPI enables businesses to strike the right balance between inventory availability and cost-effectiveness.

Metrics: Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) / Average Inventory Value

Planned Maintenance Percentage (PMP)

Planned Maintenance Percentage

Planned Maintenance Percentage (PMP) measures the amount of maintenance activities performed as planned compared to unscheduled maintenance. A higher PMP signifies better equipment reliability and lower instances of unexpected downtime.

By adhering to scheduled maintenance, manufacturers can prevent costly breakdowns, reduce equipment repair costs, and ensure uninterrupted production. PMP is instrumental in establishing proactive maintenance practices and maintaining a stable production environment.

Metrics: (Total Planned Maintenance Time / Total Maintenance Time) * 100

Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO)

Defects per Million Opportunities

Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO) quantifies the number of defects in a product per one million opportunities for a defect to occur. This KPI provides a clear insight into the quality level of the manufacturing process and helps set achievable quality targets.

Manufacturers can use DPMO to gauge the effectiveness of their quality control processes and identify opportunities for defect prevention and continuous improvement. A low DPMO indicates a high level of quality control and an efficient manufacturing process.

Metrics: (Total Defects / Total Opportunities for Defects) * 1,000,000

Energy Utilization Efficiency (EUE)

Energy Utilization Efficiency

Energy Utilization Efficiency (EUE) evaluates the efficiency with which energy is utilized during the manufacturing process. Optimizing energy usage not only reduces the environmental impact but also lowers operational costs.

By identifying energy-intensive processes and implementing energy-efficient technologies, manufacturers can reduce their carbon footprint and operating expenses simultaneously. EUE is instrumental in promoting sustainability and environmental responsibility within the manufacturing industry.

Metrics: (Total Energy Consumption / Production Output) * 100

Innovation Rate

Innovation Rate

The Innovation Rate measures the percentage of new and innovative products introduced to the market within a specific timeframe. A higher rate indicates the company’s commitment to research and development, keeping pace with technological advancements, and staying ahead of the competition.

Manufacturers with a high innovation rate are better positioned to capture new markets, expand their customer base, and secure long-term success. This KPI emphasizes the importance of fostering a culture of innovation and continuous product development.

Metrics: (Number of New Products Introduced / Total Products in the Market) * 100

Productivity by Employee Experience

Productivity by Employee Experience

Productivity by Employee Experience KPI analyzes the correlation between employee experience levels and productivity. Understanding this relationship helps management make informed decisions about skill development, training, and team structuring.

By identifying the impact of employee experience on productivity, manufacturers can implement strategies to enhance job satisfaction, improve workforce engagement, and boost overall organizational performance.

Metrics: (Total Output / Total Number of Employees) * 100

Work-in-Process (WIP) Inventory

Work in Progress Inventory

The Work-in-Process (WIP) Inventory KPI tracks the amount of unfinished products at various stages of the manufacturing process. Managing WIP effectively reduces lead times and frees up resources for other tasks.

Excessive WIP can lead to increased production lead times, higher holding costs, and lower overall efficiency. By optimizing WIP levels, manufacturers can achieve smoother production flows and shorten time-to-market for their products.

Metrics: (Value of WIP Inventory / Total Manufacturing Costs) * 100

Capacity Utilization Rate (CUR)

Capacity Utilization Rate

Capacity Utilization Rate (CUR) calculates the percentge of available production capacity that is currently being utilized. A well-optimized CUR ensures maximum utilization of resources and avoids overloading or underutilizing the production capacity.

Maintaining an appropriate CUR is vital for balancing production demands with available resources. A high CUR indicates efficient resource allocation and maximized productivity levels.

Metrics: (Actual Output / Maximum Possible Output) * 100

Customer Reject Rate

Costumer Reject Rate

The Customer Reject Rate KPI measures the percentage of products returned or rejected by customers due to quality issues. Monitoring customer reject rate helps identify potential product flaws and areas for improvement.

A high reject rate indicates quality problems that may harm a manufacturer’s reputation and lead to customer dissatisfaction. By addressing the root causes of rejects, manufacturers can improve product quality, reduce returns, and enhance customer loyalty.

Metrics: (Total Number of Rejected Units / Total Units Shipped to Customers) * 100

Cost of Quality (CoQ)

Cost of Quality

The Cost of Quality (CoQ) evaluates the total cost incurred to maintain the desired level of product quality. CoQ includes both the cost of prevention (activities aimed at preventing defects) and the cost of detection (activities to identify and correct defects).

Understanding CoQ is essential for balancing quality efforts and minimizing the overall cost of producing high-quality products. By optimizing CoQ, manufacturers can achieve better quality control while remaining cost-effective.

Metrics Components:

  • Cost of Prevention: (Total Cost of Preventive Activities / Total Production Cost) * 100
  • Cost of Detection: (Total Cost of Detecting Defects / Total Production Cost) * 100


Manufacturing KPIs are invaluable tools for businesses aiming to thrive in a competitive market. By diligently tracking and analyzing these unique KPIs, manufacturing companies can gain valuable insights into their operations, identify areas for improvement, and make informed decisions to optimize processes, enhance productivity, and achieve long-term success. Adopting a data-driven approach through these Manufacturing KPIs empowers manufacturers to stay agile, meet customer expectations, and maintain a competitive edge in the ever-evolving world of manufacturing.

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Read Also: Inventory Restocking: Strategies & How to Choose Right Model